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Battery structure

Batteries consist of a group of plates, each of which is made up of positive plates and negative plates separated by separators to prevent them from short-circuiting, an electrolyte, a plastic container, and a cover. The container is divided into six compartments, and each plate is connected in series to make up 12V.

The main parts of a battery

Part name Primary material
Positive plate Lead, lead alloy (active material is lead dioxide)
Negative plate Lead, lead alloy (active material is spongy lead)
Separator Reinforced fiber, synthetic resin
Container, Cover Plastic
Electrolyte Dilute sulfuric acid

Note: The positive plate is also called the plus plate.
The negative plate is similarly referred to as the minus plate.

The grid of plate (one example)

In addition, a positive and a negative terminal are provided to enable the connection of cables. The electrolyte is a dilute sulfur acid with a specific gravity of 1.280 (when fully charged).

The plates play an important role in the storage of electric energy in the battery, and they are composed of a grid and active material.
The grid is a mesh-formed lead alloy, and it holds the active material and collects and distributes electric energy. The active material is made up of brown lead dioxide at the positive plate and grey-colored lead at the negative plate.